It is now known that defects in the dendritic cells (DCs) and helper and cytotoxic T cells exist in cancer and that these must be corrected for effective cellular immune responses. In addition, tumors induce immune suppression through multiple mechanisms. Thus, next generation active immunotherapies must also effectively counteract tumor-induced immune suppression. The targets for active immunotherapy include:
The current scientific view is that the immune system is capable of recognizing cancer cells as foreign and responding against them, but it does not do this because the immune system is suppressed by the cancer through multiple protective mechanisms. Given the numerous cellular defects present in cancer, however, it is unlikely that a single agent or cytokine will restore cellular immune responses. Additionally:
The INSPIRE study is intended to provide evidence that IRX-2 activates and stimulates multiple components of the cellular immune system resulting in host recognition of disease, rejection, and immunization.